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Цитадель АРК (9-10 в.)

Ark — it is an ancient citadel in Bukhara (modern Uzbekistan), a stronghold of the last emirs. In due time the ARK, towering over the square Registan, was a symbol of greatness, the power and inaccessibility. The Arch once hung on one of walls a big leather lash (kamcha) — a symbol of the power in the Bukhara Emirate. At the beginning of the 20th century about three thousand people lived in Arce. In fortress settled down: palace of governors, palace services of the high-ranking nobility and military leaders, craft workshops, treasury, arsenal, dwellings of relatives and dignitaries of the yard, warehouses of clothes, carpets, weapon, and palace treasures. Fortress of the ARC is the most ancient architectural and archaeological monument of Bukhara.

Design and architecture
Ceremonial entrance to a citadel is architecturally framed with two towers connected by gallery (1970). The ARC is a big earth fortification construction in a northwest part of modern Bukhara. In the plan he reminds the wrong rectangle which is a little extended from the West on the East. Perimeter of external walls the Arch makes 789,60 m, interior area — 3,96 hectares. Height from the level of the square Registan fluctuates from 16 to 20 meters.

All remained buildings belong to the periods of board of the Uzbek dynasties Ashtarkhanidov (17th century) and Mangytov (the XVIII—XX centuries). Ceremonial entrance to a citadel is architecturally framed with two towers. In the top part of a tower are connected by gallery to well remained room and terraces for city guard. Rise to the main gate represents a ramp which conducts through the covered long corridor to the cathedral mosque Dzhome. Along a corridor rooms for water (obkhan), sand (regkhan) and the camera (kanakhan) for prisoners are located.
In the western part remained: the throne-room — "kurinish-hon" (17th century), the cathedral mosque Dzhome (18th century), the yard of the prime minister of the emir "kushbegi-bolo" (the XIX—XX in), the yard of greetings "fat of a hon" (XIX—XX century), and the konyushenny yard Sais-hona (XIX—XX century).

In the southern part remained: Honako's mosque (19th century) and remains of a bath of the emir (19th century).
In a northern part — honako Battol-Gozi (18th century) and the mosque "Childukhtaron" (40 girls) built in the 18th century in memory of forty girls who died by order of the emir Nasrullah.
East part did not remain, was destroyed in 1920, now — the archaeological reserve
The creator of a citadel the national legend calls the epic hero of Siyavush. According to a legend, he was the beautiful young man hiding in Turana Range (the rich country stretched in an oasis among the desert) from prosecution of the stepmother. Siyavush and the daughter of the local governor Afrasiab fell in love with each other. But the cunning father set a condition that Siyavush built the palace on the earth which is located under a bull skin if wants to marry the princess. But even more cunning there was Siyavush. He cut a skin on thin strips, connected the ends together and in this border built the palace.
The lash (kamcha) hanging on one of walls on a legend belonged to the legendary hero Rustam.
Seyid Alim khan (1880 — 1944) is the last emir of Bukhara overthrown by Bolsheviks.
The citadel is constructed on the settlement remains which are based upon twenty-meter depth under the basis the Arch, in archaeological layers of the beginning of our era. The ARC repeatedly collapsed, and then built up again. The first information about Arce (Kukhindis — as he is mentioned in historical sources) contains in "History of Bukhara" Abubakr Narshakhi (899 — 960). Narshakhi, in particular wrote: "The governor of Bukhara Bidun Bukhar Hudot constructed this fortress, but it soon collapsed. How many it built how many times collapsed". They say that when the governor addressed for council wise men, they advised it to build fortress on seven columns located on the relation the friend to the friend as stars in the constellation of Big Dipper. Constructed thus, the ARC did not begin to collapse. The age the Arch is not established precisely, but, in any case, one and a half thousand years ago it was already the residence of local governors. Here, in the powerful strengthened citadel, there lived not only emirs, but also their chief viziers, military leaders and numerous servants.
In 1220 when Genghis Khan's soldiers took Bukhara, residents found a shelter in Arce, but conquerors, having got into the ARC, interrupted defenders, plundered values and destroyed fortress.

Ceremonial entrance to a citadel. S.M. Prokudin-Gorsky's photo, 1909
In the Middle Ages in Arce Firdousi, Avicenna, Al-Farabi, later Omar Jayam worked Rudaki. The unique library about which Avicenna wrote was here too stored: "I found in this library such books about which did not know and which any more never saw in life. I read him or her, and the place of each scientist in the science became clear to me. Predo me gate in such depths of knowledge which I also did not guess opened". Most likely, the library was plundered during one of wars.

Bolsheviks made the last terrible contribution to destruction the Arch during a siege of Bukhara in 1920 under Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze's command (30.8.-2.9.1920). On his order the ARC was bombed from the plane while besieged were not forced to be given. As a result the most part of fortress turned into chaos of ruins. However, there are bases to believe that it is the emir Alimkhan before flight disposed to blow up the ARC that nobody could mock at places, intimate for it, especially enormous harem. And it is valid, the territory of a harem was damaged most strongly and, according to archeologists, is not subject to restoration as at the moment represents only packed clay weight.