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Хранилище для воды Сардоба Малик

Sardoba | Sardob | Sardob Ab-Anbar  — literally storage for water — a hydraulic engineering architectural construction of economic appointment in some regions of Turkey, Iran and Central Asia; the pool buried to the earth and covered with the stone arch — for collecting, storage and consumption of fresh drinking water. The arch or gumbaz over the pool prevented considerable evaporation of water, in a certain measure protected from dust and sandstorms, created a constant shadow. 

Water in such storages remained cold during the most hot period of year. If around the pool-hauza the gallery was located, then sardob served as the vacation spot and a dream in a shadow under the dome arches. In the cities and settlements of a sardoba settled down on big squares and in palaces of governors. As an architectural construction, sardob itself the pool-house of a hemispherical form deepened to the earth with gallery or without it, covered with a hemispherical dome with one or several entrances in a construction usually represented. It is more correct to use the term sardob, just as kyariz, aryk, house, Rabat. The term is a complex compound word that consists of two parts: in the language of Farsi sard - “cold” and Turkic - “water”.
Sardob it was filled with rain and thawed snow, sometimes waters from channels or streams, often they were constructed along the line underground channels of kyariz. Often sardob were constructed at caravanserais on the overland trade ways for rest and satisfaction of needs for water for the person and animals.
Gumbaz — a spherical dome of a sardob served as also good reference point and on flat plains was far visible.
In dry steppes, semidesertic and desert areas of Central Asia very often sardob was the only source of water. In a number of places trade caravan tracks without system sardob, located on the way, could not exist at all. So sardoba were regularly under repair, pools were cleaned, and in need of a sardoba and were protected by the armed groups. According to unwritten custom water from a sardob was always used for drink only after boiling. The great silk way on certain sites is obliged by the existence only to sardoba.
Sardoba are known with X during our era.
Design and architecture
The classical design of a sardob represents itself house — the pool of a hemispherical form with the stone ladder conducting down. In the plan — at the top view — house has the ideal round form. Such form is necessary for construction over hauzy the correct dome-gumbaza. House was buried to the earth there fresh water naturally flew down and settled.
Occasionally house rather narrow gallery surrounded. Then sardob combined functions of storage of water and a caravanserai. On gallery it was possible to take refuge in a shadow of a gumbaz from the scorching heat in the afternoon or to lie down on a lodging for the night.
House was blocked by the round dome-gumbazom in the plan which usually had the form of the correct hemisphere. However during different historical eras and in various areas of a gumbyza also in the engineering and architectural relation were various, probably, satisfying tastes of the customer or a plan of the architect and builder.
In a sardob conducted one or several entrances. Sometimes the main entrance submitted itself the monumental solemn portal. In the top part of a dome usually there was a small round opening which served for ventilation of internal volume and natural lighting. Some domes had navershy in the form of small brick turrets. Tiles from within what sardob called «palace» for trim Kupol-gurbaz Karaulbazar-sardoba near Bukhara in the steppe Urtachul.
The device, architecture and construction of a sardob in ancient Sogda
Sardob it was very difficult and as an engineering design, and as an architectural construction. At construction of a sardob the rich and various technology developed and checked by practice of centuries was applied.
Finished sardob was very expensive construction and the place for its construction was chosen very carefully. Sardob usually placed in the lowland where on a natural clay surface thawed and rain snow were flown down. Often, without breaking a waterproof layer, akkruratno manufactured superficial extended channels-aryki which network dumped all collected precious water in house under a dome of a sardob.

The pool of a sardob - house is usually the capacity of a hemispherical form deepened to the earth up to 3-5 meters. In the plan - it is a circle with a diameter of 12 - 15 meters. Thickness of walls of a house - up to 1,5 meters.
Around the pool with water the gallery was built. On gallery had a rest, ate food, spent the night, waited a day heat. All construction was covered with a hemispherical dome which protected water from evaporation and gave a saving shadow in the afternoon as around the desert traveled most often at night when the ruthless palayashchy sun left for the horizon. Outside on gallery became one or several entrances. In top of a dome there could be a small round opening, or a dome the turret crowned. In the afternoon the dome with a turret was an excellent reference point on the desert plane. At night, presumably, in a turret fires - an oil lamp as the beacon reference point for the caravans moving at the night and travelers could be lit.
The brick sustained and burned on fire was material for construction of a house, gallery and a dome specially and carefully dressed of prescription clay. The compounding of clay and its components, technology of manufacture often were a secret of professional masters.
Usually the sardoba was under construction 5 - 7 years under supervision of the master-usto. Lips was both an architect, and the engineer, and the builder, and the technical lead of construction.
On one construction from 400 to 600 thousand bricks left. Special clay for them was extracted in lower reaches of Amu Darya, since ancient times known and appreciated its heat resisting, waterproof, heat-insulating properties. This clay-gel was kneaded in the special way, with addition of camel wool. At once solution to molding was not let, the long time it was maintained. The formed brick about one year "basked" in the sun. And if the ready brick did not burst and did not change a form, it was sent to fire. After roasting again strictly selected on a sound, a form and other qualities. Only carefully selected brick was recognized as suitable and moved on construction. Mixture for a laying was made on water with addition of sheep milk on camel wool. The put thus a bottom and walls of the pool-hauza, circular gallery and a dome turned out strong and extremely durable.
House - storage of water - was under construction on special technology which excluded filtration of collected water, and kept its clean, transparent and cold. The bottom of the pool-hauza gave all the best mixed with ganchy a brick. The following layer was from coal of the burned saxaul. In a number of places underground water was saltish and saksaulovy coal served as the good filter, purifying water from salts and other impurity.
Over a coal layer there was one more - from camel wool. Then the bottom of a house was evenly dimmed a skin of cattle. Only after that finally covered an internal surface of a house with ganchevy mix and began a brick laying.
During the winter and spring sardob could collect more than 20 thousand cubic meters of water in the desert.
According to historical data, in Mavaraunarkh there were 44 Sardoba. From them in the Qarshi steppe - 29, in Mirzochul's steppes - from 3 to 6, in the neighborhood of Fergana and Tashkent - 3 and in the Pocket - one sardob. On the way between Samarkand and Bukhara of a sardob in general were the only source providing with drinking water of travelers and the passing caravans. Sardoba in Bukhara, Karaulbazare and other cities, and settlements remained.
Sardob in the Bukhara khanate of the 16th century
Broad construction sardob was carried out in Sheybanid Abdullakhan II'S government in the second half of the XVI century. A long time Abdullah from a sort Sheybanidov ruled the country on behalf of the father – the khan Iskanderkhan (1560-1583). After his death Sheybanid Abdullah was officially proclaimed by the khan and became known in the Uzbek history as Sheybanida Abdullakhana II (1583-1598).

In Sheybanid Abdullakhan II'S government borders of the state considerably extended, the economy was stabilized, conditions for development of agriculture, crafts, domestic and foreign trade were created. Construction of numerous caravanserais and a sardob across all territory of possession subject to it is connected with his name.
The network of trade roads which connected the most remote regions of the country connected the cities subject to it to shopping centers of Afghanistan, India and Iran in the south, the rich cities in Syr-Daryin's valley the North, nomads of the Kazakh steppes and Siberia. These were both permanent trade roads, and a set of their seasonal branches. Broad trade with Russia, first of all cotton fabrics developed. The Russian military engineers describe the developed road network of the Bukhara khanate.
At Abdullakhana II a lot of work on improvement of trade roads was carried out. The state guaranteed traffic safety of caravans on all territory of the country. The trade caravans belonging to a feudal top usually consisted of several hundred camels. Many foreign merchants – Persians, Arabs and Turks gathered in Samarkand and Bukhara. In Bukhara there was a special quarter of usurers and Hindu merchants. The markets of Bukhara and Samarkand were visited also, and by Europeans.
Trade ways could not exist without sardob – permanent storages of fresh drinking water. A. Burns during the travel in the middle of the 19th century wrote down a national legend that Abdullakhan, having made a hajj to Mecca, came back with belief from there that it was not pleasing to Allah. In hope to deserve it favor it began to build caravanserais and a sardob in all parts of the possession. According to one document, at its board 400 sardoba, in a different way – are newly built up and restored 1000. Usually a sardoba works or caravanserais – on places of lodgings for the night were built on places of halts, and. Some works had own a sardob.