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Медресе Мири Араб (16 в.)

Madrasah of Miri Arab — an Islamic educational, spiritual and educational and memorial and cult construction of the 16th century in Bukhara (Uzbekistan). A part of an architectural complex Give to drink Kalyan. In 1993 among other sights of Bukhara, it is entered in the List of the World heritage of UNESCO in Uzbekistan. The sheikh of a tariqa Nakshbandiy Sayid Abdullah al-Yamani Hazaramavti, the spiritual mentor of the specific governor of Bukhara of the emir of Ubaydulla-hana and the ideological inspirer of fight of the people of Transoxiana against the Iranian conquerors presumably constructed the madrasah of Miri the Arab.

Тinternal start date of construction of madrasah is disputable today. Long time in a historiography of the Soviet period the version based on conclusions of the famous archeologists and scientists-orientalists M.E. Masson and G.A. Pugachenkov according to whom construction of the building was carried out during the period from 1530 to 1535/1536 dominated. However the last researches in this area shift start date of construction almost for two decades before this term. Now it is known that the madrasah of Miri the Arab was constructed in commemoration of a victory of the army of sheybanid over troops of the sefevidsky shah Ismail I in fight at Gizhduvana won in 1512. It is also known that final construction works were performed on the money of Ubaydulla-hana received by it from sale in slavery of 3000 captured Iranians, and the last large collisions of sheybanid with Iran took place in the first half of the 1520th years. Sheikh Abdullah Yamani who died in 1526 before death bequeathed to bury himself in the territory of the madrasah constructed by it that also demonstrates that by this time construction was almost complete. It is probable that in 1530 — 1535/1536 years the building of madrasah was significantly reconstructed. The madrasah received the modern name "Miri Arab" (property of the Arab) after the death of its founder.
From the moment of the basis and before closing in the early twenties the madrasah of Miri the Arab was one of the most prestigious educational institutions of Central Asia. In it many famous scientists taught, among them there are a famous Tajik thinker, the educator, the philosopher, the writer and the poet, the statesman of the Bukhara emirate Ahmad Donish Bukhari, the qadi-kalyan of the Samarkand Isokhon Shirinkhuzhayev region, the last qadi of the city of Ishtykhan Kozi Sayyid Bakhodirkhon ibn Sayyid of Ibrokhimkhuzha and others.
Among his graduates there was the first mufti of the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting in Ufa Mukhammedzhan Husain, the first elected mufti of the Russian Muslims Galimdzhan Barudi, the famous theologian of the 19th century sheikh Kazy-Askar, outstanding mufassir and mukhaddis the end of the 19th century Miyan Malik. In 1945 after long negotiations with governmental bodies the mufti of the Central Asian spiritual management of Muslims (SADUM) Eshon Babakhan achieved resumption of work of madrasah of Miri the Arab. For many years it was the only Islamic educational institution in the USSR thanks to what became widely known in all the Islamic world. And statesmen as the chairman of the board of muftis of Russia Ravil Gaynutdin, the mufti of Azerbaijan Allakhshukyur Pashazade, the mufti of Kazakhstan Ratbek Nysanbayuly, the president of the Chechen Republic Ahmad Kadyrov were his graduates during the Soviet and Post-Soviet period such known religious. Now in madrasah more than 100 students at a time study.
By the beginning of the 20th century the building of madrasah was already seriously damaged: fell off timpan its entrance portal, the left wing of the main facade was destroyed, many elements of a decor, including a blue calotte of the escaped dome of the southern darskhana are lost. Further as a result of the carried-out restoration works of madrasah it is completely restored.
The madrasah of Miri the Arab is built in reception "кош" with the mosque Kalyan together with which makes a uniform architectural complex Give to drink Kalyan. It represents the rectangular building in the plan with the powerful entrance portal on the main facade flanked on corners by massive semicircular towers-guldasta. The main facade of madrasah is issued two by level loggias, other external facades of the building deaf. The entrance portal — peshtak — is cut through by a deep semi-octahedral niche in which there is an only entrance conducting in a lobby. From a lobby pass conducts to the square four ayvanny yard with slanted corners surrounded on perimeter with two tiers hudzhr. Ayvana, carrying out a role of summer audiences, are issued by small portals from which in the original only southern remained. In east angular rooms audiences for occupations of students — darskhana are located. Angular rooms on the main facade are blocked by spherical domes on high cylindrical drums with light windows on axes. The system of the crossed arches and thyroid sails which comes to an end with a wreath of stalactites forms the basis for domes. In the dome room, left from a main entrance, the gurkhana in which there are marble gravestones of the sheikh Abdullah Yamani and Mahomed Kasym's mudarris, wooden Sagan (according to other data — a cenotaph) Ubaydulla-hana and some more not identified stone namogilnik is located. In the dome room, right from a lobby, the mosque is equipped. In a decor of madrasah of Miri the Arab carved kashinny mosaics of delicate work with vegetable, geometrical and epigrafichesky patterns with which are decorated peshtak, timpana of loggias of the main facade, a timpana of arches hudzhr on internal facades and drums of domes prevail. Domes are outside covered with a calotte from blue tiles. In internal furniture of madrasah especially a parabottom the gurkhana is issued. Its panels and lattices are decorated with a carved kashinny mosaic, and walls and a plafond — carved ganchy.