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Ансамбль Абди-Дарун

Abdi-Darun (Abdou-Darun's) ensemble — the complex of constructions of memorial, cult and spiritual and educational appointment at the Old cemetery of Samarkand (Republic of Uzbekistan) which developed in the XII—XX centuries at a grave of the famous Islamic jurist of the 9th century Abd-is scarlet Mazeddina. An ancient kernel of ensemble is the mausoleum of the 12th century near which were at different times constructed a hanaka, the mosque and madrasah. The radical reorganizations of ensemble significantly changing its appearance were carried out in XV, 19th and 20th centuries. Abdi-Darun's ensemble is one of the most esteemed Islam shrines in Central Asia.

History
The Islamic jurist Abd-is scarlet Mazeddin better known in Transoxiana under the name of Hodzhi Abdi, had a reputation for the expert on Sharia and was one of the most dear kaziyev in Samarkand. He died about 861 year and was buried on a Muslim custom in a garden of the extensive estate, which was in a southeast part of Samarkand at a fortification of the external city. Concerning origin Abd-is scarlet Mazeddina sources differ. Abu-Takhir-Hodge in the book "Samaria" calls him a certain Hodzhi Mahomed Yaqub's son and the grandson Hodzhi Abu of ibn Usman. At the same time the Islamic theologian of Abu Hafs Nadzhmetdin Umar in Candia conducts his family tree to the Caliph Usman and, respectively, to the prophet Muhammad. Possibly, a talk on Hodzhi Abdi's relationship with the prophet served as the cause of his cult.
In the first half of the 12th century over a grave Abd-is scarlet Mazeddina by order of the sultan Sandzhar was built the small mausoleum in the form of the cube topped with a conic dome on an octahedral drum. Possibly, by this time around a mazar other burials already appeared. The mausoleum turned out is so small that practically all its internal space was filled with a gravestone of the Saint. Therefore, in the first half of the 15th century in Ulugbek's government to the mausoleum more spacious one-room room with the portal and a dome, which one consider hanak, others ziyaratkhan was in front, attached. Then before the building in a shadow of plane trees, the pool-house of square shape was dug. Is slightly later to a hanaka and the mausoleum on each side additional utility rooms were attached. Most likely, in the 15th century on a mazara there are the first mosque and some other structures, which did not remain up to now. In the first, half of the 19th century on West side of a complex on the ancient base the new mosque which, however did not endure reconstruction of the beginning of the 20th century, and a small minaret was built. Then at a northwest corner of the mosque gate Darwaz to which from the street through the cemetery the fenced path was laid were built. In 1905 in a northern part of a complex the small madrasah was constructed, and in 1909 in its western part on the place of the old mosque more spacious building with a g-shaped ayvan was built. Among paintings of the mosque names of masters of the 20th century Sabir Naddzhara, Siddik, Abduzakhid and Abdugani Hasankhan Taylyaki remained. During the same period, the house was given the form of an octahedron. Thanks to restoration works of the beginning of the 20th century Abdi-Darun's ensemble not bad remained up to now. At a turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, the elements of an external decor lost in the Middle Ages including a calotte of a dome of a hanaka were restored. From East side the complex was captured by a terrace on wooden columns. To the east from ensemble in the territory of the Old cemetery the new minaret was built, and to the northwest from a complex from Sadriddin Ayni Street the new entrance is equipped. The word "darun" (in translation from Tajik — internal, that is being in limits of a city wall) appeared in the name of the mausoleum as opposition to other sacral place which received Abdi-Birun's name (birun — external, that is being behind a city wall) which is in the southern residential suburb of Samarkand.

Features of architecture
Abdi-Darun's ensemble except for several minor structures is located on the square the size 125×70 of meters. The basic architectural elements of a complex are grouped around the yard by the size 25×25 of meters most of which part occupies octahedral house with the plane trees growing around it. Along North side of perimeter the building of madrasah which hudzhra and household rooms are turned into the yard is extended. From the East the perimeter is enclosed ayvany with the flat roof leaning on wooden columns. On the opposite side — the guzarny mosque consisting of the square winter room and a summer g-shaped ayvan. The mosque — a bright example of the Samarkand national style of the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries. The wooden kessonirovanny ceiling of an ayvan is decorated with polikhromny painting. Walls of the mosque are decorated carved ganchy with the coloring of a background characteristic of this time. The southern part of a complex is occupied by the mausoleum with hanaky and additional side extensions. Actually, Hodzhi Abdi's mausoleum is a room of a cubic form in a building end face. Over it on a low octahedral drum the conic dome is built. Any decor in an interior of the mausoleum is absent: its walls and a ceiling are jammed by white alabaster. The room of a hanaka attached to the mausoleum has portal and dome composition. The entrance portal was once above and it the decorative gallery from lancet Orochs crowned. The massive dome covered with blue tiles is based upon a high cylindrical drum. Outside of a hanak it is decorated by glazed bricks which on the portal form geometrical patterns — girikh, and on a drum of the dome — an epigraphic ornament. In an interior in the basis of walls, there is a blue ceramic panel with an insert on the center of a mosaic in the form of many petal socket.