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Площадь Регистан

The square Registan — the majestic ensemble consisting of 3 madrasahs and the mosque built during the period from 15 to 17 centuries. Ulugbek's madrasah — the oldest building on the square, is constructed by order of Ulugbek (grandson Timur) in the 15th century. Two others are constructed in the first half of the 17th century by order of the governor of Samarkand — Yalangtush — Bakhadura.

Ulugbek's madrasahis the oldest madrasah on the square Registan and was built in 1417 — 1420 by the governor of the state of Timuridov and the scientist-astronomer Ulugbek. Construction of this construction, and a bit later and observatories, brought to Samarkand glory of one of the main centers of science of the medieval East.
The madrasah was constructed in the western part of the square Registan, opposite to it several years built Ulugbek's hanaka later, and the North side was taken by a caravanserai. Two last constructions staid about two centuries, and then on their place at the beginning of the 17th century there were madrasahs which reached our days Sherdor and Tillya-Kari's madrasah.
Rectangular in respect of madrasah had four ayvan and the square courtyard on which perimeter the deep niches conducting in two-story cells where there lived students were located. The back part of the yard was taken by the mosque, over angular educational audiences of madrasah four domes towered, and on corners of the building four minarets settled down. The building is turned to the area by majestic east portal with a high lancet arch over which there is a mosaic panel with a geometrical ornament executed from color bricks, irrigation and carved ceramics.
Ulugbek's madrasah was one of the best spiritual universities of the Muslim East of the 15th century. According to the legend, in it the famous poet, the scientist and the philosopher Abdurrahman Dzhami studied, In educational institution lectures on mathematics, geometry, logic, natural sciences, the sets of doctrines about the person and to world soul and divinity were given and their famous scientists of that time read: Kazi-zade ar-Rumi, Dzhemshid Gijas ad-Din Al-Kaschi, Al-Kushchi and also Ulugbek.
The madrasah Sherdor was constructed on the place of the hanaka of Ulugbek which arose in 1424 in east part of the square opposite to Ulugbek's madrasah. By the beginning of the 17th century of a hanak along with other buildings of the area decayed and became useless. According to the order of the governor of Samarkand Yalangtush Bakhadur construction of madrasah Sherdor and Tillya-Kari was begun. The madrasah Sherdor (madrasah "with tigers", "Monastery of lions") was built by the architect by the name of Abdul-Jabbar, the master of a decor Muhammad Abbas.
Madrasah Sherdor almost specularly repeats Ulugbek's madrasah standing opposite, though in the distorted proportions. It is distinguished by a dome, unreasonably big by the size, that could serve as the reason of gradual destruction of the building in several decades after its construction. Walls of madrasah are covered with quotes from the Koran, on the entrance portal the coat of arms of Samarkand — leopards with the sun on a back is represented, in the center of an arch the swastika is placed, and above by a special Arab font it is written down "the Lord Vsemogushch!". Decoration of external and internal facades are executed from a glazed brick, mosaic sets and paintings with abundance of gilding. Finishing of madrasah Sherdor considerably concedes in refinement of madrasah of Ulugbek, built in the 15th century on which "Golden Age" of architecture of Samarkand fell. Nevertheless, the harmony of big and small forms, the graceful drawing of a mosaic, monumentalism, symmetry clearness — all this puts madrasah in one row with the best architectural city monuments.

Tillya-Kari madrasah was built in a northern part of the square in ten years after madrasah Sherdor on the place of a caravanserai of the 1420th years. The main facade square in the building plan is symmetric and consists of the central portal and two-story frontal wings with arch niches and angular towers. The spacious yard is built up on perimeter with small inhabited cells, hudzhra. From West side of the yard the dome building of the mosque with two adjacent galleries on columns is located.
The building of madrasah is richly trimmed by a mosaic and a majolica with a geometrical and vegetable ornament. In scenery of an interior gilding is plentifully used, as the madrasah meaning — "trimmed with gold" gave the name. In the mosque are gilded mikhrab and the minbar, a surface of walls and the arches are covered with painting kundal with plentiful use of gold.
Throughout all the history of madrasah Tillya-Kari was not only the place of training of students, but also carried out a role of the cathedral mosque.
Mausoleum Sheybanidov
To the east from Tillya-Kari's madrasah the mausoleum Sheybanidov representing a heap of gravestones, the oldest of which treats the 16th century, is located. The grandson Abul Haira, Muhammad Sheybani who in 1500, with support of the Chagataysk Khanate which located then in Tashkent conquered Samarkand and Bukhara was the founder of the power of Sheybanidov, having overthrown the last governors governing there from a dynasty Timuridov. After that Sheybani addressed against the benefactors and in 1503 took Tashkent. In 1506 he took Khiva and in 1507 attacked Merv (Turkmenistan), east Persia and the western Afghanistan. Sheybanida stopped approach Safavidov which in 1502 won Akkoyunla (Iran). Mahomed Sheybani was the leader of nomadic Uzbeks. Within the next years they strongly located in oases of Central Asia. The Uzbek invasion of the 16th century was the last component in ethnogenesis of the modern Uzbek nation.

Trade dome of Chorsu
Behind madrasah Sherdor is located the ancient trade dome of Chorsu confirming the status of the square Registan as shopping center of medieval Samarkand. The six-sided dome building which reached our days was built in the 15th century, and at the beginning of the 18th a century is reconstructed. In 2005 the trade dome was restored, at the same time the three-meter layer of earth was cleaned off to restore the full height of the building. Now in it the gallery of the fine arts where works of the Uzbek artists and sculptors are exposed is located.
Legends and myths
They say that the name of the area — the place covered with sand — came from the fact that the earth was covered with sand here to absorb blood of the victims of public executions which allegedly made on this place up to the beginning of the 20th century. Still say that Registan was the place where Tamerlan paraded the heads of the victims, which were pinned on probes, and also the place where the people gathered to listen to royal decrees before which reading loudly sounded the copper trumpets. However it is necessary to remember that at the time of Timur who died in 1405 on that square there was no of the buildings existing nowadays which are considered as masterpieces of east architecture.