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Медресе Улугбека

Ulugbek Madrasah (Ulug`bek madrasasi) is a Muslim spiritual and educational, educational and religious building of the 15th century in Samarkand. The oldest madrasah of the architectural ensemble of Registan Square, erected by the ruler of the Timurid state and scientist-astronomer Ulugbek. Together with the Sherdor and Tilla-Kari Madrasahs, it forms an integral architectural ensemble. In 2001, among other attractions of Samarkand, it was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Ulugbek Madrasah was built according to the Muslim canon in full accordance with the requirements of its era.

It is a classic example of a religious educational institution in Central Asia and the Middle East.
The madrasah is a rectangular construction with a total area of ​​81x56 meters. Its main eastern facade faces Registan Square. The main element of the main facade is a powerful entrance portal - peshtak. In the depths of the portal there are three entrances, of which the central one, framed by an exaggeratedly large lancet arch, is closed with openwork panjara. The other two entrances are also decorated with lancet arches, but smaller. Above each of them there is one loggia overlooking the area of ​​hujras. In the corners of the madrasah once stood four minarets 33 meters high, of which only the eastern ones were completely preserved. In the corners of the building are spacious audiences (darskhans), once covered by double domes. A square four-yard courtyard with an area of ​​30x30 meters is paved with large stone slabs and framed by two floors of one-room and two-room hujras. Aivans are located on the axes of the building and decorated with portals. Each aivan divides the hujras in half so that on each side of it there are six hujras on two floors. Northern and southern aivans are deaf and have previously served as summer audiences. The entrance to the winter mosque occupying the entire central part of the western wing is located in western aivan.
The entire set of materials available at that time was used to decorate the madrasah: glazed bricks, carved mosaic mosaic, majolica, carved marble. The combination of white, blue, blue and manganese-black tiles with terracotta facing bricks creates all the wealth of geometric, floral and epigraphic patterns. The portals of the madrassahs and tympans of the arches of the hujras are decorated with mosaics of multi-colored kashin. The main portal is especially luxurious. Mosaic stars on his tympanum form a pattern symbolizing the starry sky, and the pylons are decorated with mosaic panels with geometric patterns. The architectural merits of Ulugbek madrasah, emphasized by highly artistic decorative design, put it on a par with other masterpieces of Muslim medieval architecture.