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Медресе Шердор

Madrasah Sherdor (Sherdor madrasasi) — an Islamic educational, spiritual and educational and memorial and cult construction of the 17th century in Samarkand on the square Registan. Together with Ulugbek and Tillya-Kari's madrasah forms a complete architectural complex. In 2001 together with other sights of Samarkand, it is entered in the List of the World heritage of UNESCO.

The madrasah Sherdor was constructed in 1619-1635/36 years by order of the specific governor (Hakeem) of Samarkand Yalangtush by Bakhadura by the Samarkand architect Abdullah Jabbar. The master Mahomed Abbas executed its decorative registration.
For construction of madrasah, east part of the square Registan was chosen as the place. For this purpose to the basis, strongly decayed Ulugbek's hanaka constructed in 1424 was sorted. Hanaka gave rich construction material for madrasah Sherdor that was confirmed with the archeological excavations, which are carried out in 1956 by the Soviet archeologist S.N. Yurenev.
The madrasah Sherdor was constructed in reception "кош" with madrasah of Ulugbek which graceful proportions were the basis for the project. As envisioned by the architect the main facades of two madrasahs had to become specular reflection of each other. However the author did not consider that in two hundred years which passed from the moment of construction of madrasah of Ulugbek, the level of the square Registan rose by two meters. As a result of a proportion of madrasah Sherdor turned out stockier, than at the original.

After construction of madrasah it was called by the name of the customer Yalangtush Bakhadur, but this name did not get accustomed in the people. The modern name – Sherdor – it received on a mosaic pattern on the timpena of its ceremonial portal. The master of a decor represented a scene of hunting for a dzheyran of a fantastic animal from the cat family reminding a tiger, but with a mane of a lion, in beams of the ascending solar face. The name is translated as "having lions" or "having tigers". The plot represented on the portal of madrasah became one of national symbols of the Republic of Uzbekistan over time.

Throughout nearly three centuries of madrasah Sherdor was educational institution, rather known in the Islamic world, though on prestige they and conceded to both capital educational institutions, and Ulugbek's madrasah. Despite the impressive sizes, in madrasah a little more than forty people at a time could study. Among his most famous graduates, it is possible to call the famous Tatar theologian, the sheikh of Sufi brotherhood of Naqshbandi, the philosopher and the historian Shigabutdin Mardzhani.
Throughout the existence the madrasah Sherdor endured several earthquakes, the most destructive of which occurred at the beginning and at the end of the 19th century. The building stood, but was nevertheless considerably damaged: the set of its main portal was strongly deformed, in many places facing fell off, minarets were lop-sided. In the early twenties of the XX century teaching in madrasah was stopped by the resolution of bodies of the Soviet power. The building was nationalized and in 1924 in it restoration works began. Hudzhra were repaired, the fallen-off part of the brick arch of a portal arch is restored, the carved mosaic of a timpan of the main portal is strengthened, it is sorted and its deformed arch is newly shifted, domes and the arches hudzhr are shifted, facing of facades of madrasah is restored. In the late fifties of the XX century in the territory of madrasah archaeological researches then the new stage of restoration began were carried out. In 1960-1962 minarets of madrasah were repaired, and in 1962 on the project of the artist V.N. Gorokhov and the architect A.I. Freytag the mosaic of a timpan over an arch of the main portal was restored.

The madrasah Sherdor is constructed in traditions of the Central Asian medieval architecture. It represents the rectangular building with a total area of 70х57 meters in the plan. The main facade is allocated with the powerful entrance portal – peshtaky - with a lancet arch which height is 31,5 meters. The minarets 31 meter high topped with stalactite eaves flank building corners on the main facade. East external corners of madrasah are executed in the form of the three-quarter towers, which are put up level with height of walls. The spacious Four aivan yard of madrasah of 30х38 meters in size paved with large stone blocks from chupanatinsk slate is surrounded on perimeter with two tiers hudzhr. All 48 hudzhr one-room. In corners of the yard audiences for occupations of students – darskhana settle down. On the main facade of a darskhana are blocked by the ribbed sfero konichesky domes on high drums decorated with a turquoise tile. Right from a main entrance the dome darskhana was turned into a gurkhana over time. There are several not identified burials. The left dome darskhana performed function of the mosque. Interestingly architectural execution of side ayvan: their niches have the arch in the form of a many-sided semi-dome.
In decorative registration of madrasah sets of glazed bricks, a majolica and a cashing mosaic are widely used. In a decor of external facades difficult geometrical patterns – the girikh calculated on perception from far away prevail. On friezes of minarets and drums of domes, there are epigraphic ornaments. The mayoliko mosaic of a timpan of the main portal which is among the most rare works of Islamic art is unique. Timpana of arches hudzhr are ornated. The curling stalks with magnificent buds and flowers form an openwork pattern. Mosaic panels in a niche of the western ayvan are remarkable: magnificent bouquets of flowers in figured flowerpots symbolize a life tree. In internal furniture of the building decorative finishing of the dome room of a darskhana is especially interesting. Its walls and the arches are painted in the equipment kundal with a small multi-color vegetable pattern, and painting of a dome and the arches forms difficult arabeskovy medallions