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Медресе Тилля-Кари

Tilla-Kori madrasah, Samarkand (Tilla Qori madrasasi — Gilded madrasah) — a cult, spiritual and educational and educational construction of the 17 th century in Samarkand on the square Registan. Is the latest structure on the square and together with Ulugbek's madrasah and madrasah Sherdor forms a complete architectural complex? In 2001 among other sights of Samarkand, it is entered in the List of the World heritage of UNESCO.

Construction of madrasah of Tillya-Kari began in 1646 by order of the specific governor (Hakeem) of Samarkand Yalangtush by Bakhadur on the place of the caravanserai of Mirzoi constructed in the 15th century and strongly decayed with partial use of its bases and walls. By the time of the beginning of construction cathedral mosques of Samarkand (Bibi-Han and Alik Kukeltash) lay in ruins, and at design was decided to combine the higher spiritual school and Juma mosque in the madrasah building. Construction and finishing works were continued 14 years and were complete in 1660 after Yalangtush Bakhadur's death. Possibly, for this reason, finishing of some elements of madrasah was executed with noticeable negligence, and the external dome of the mosque Tillya-Kari was not complete. Construction of madrasah of Tillya-Kari finished registration of the square Registan and gave to the architectural complex located here the finished look. In the 19th century, a strong earthquake damaged the building of madrasah. Especially the entrance portal suffered. Its top part together with timpany collapsed. According to the order of the emir Haidar the portal was restored, but already without tile finishing. By the beginning of the 20th century the most part of facing of madrasah was lost. Restoration works began in the twenties the 20th century when efforts on rescue of the escaped decor fragments were made. Works on restoration of facing of external facades were in the early thirties carried out. In 1950 — 1958 domestic facades of madrasah and a drum of the dome of the mosque were restored. In the first half of the 70 th years, the decor of a timpan of the main portal was restored and the external dome of the mosque is built. In 1979 works on restoration of painting of an interior of the mosque were complete. Now in Tillya-Kari's madrasah the exposition of the museum of restoration of the square Registan is placed.

Tillya-Kari's madrasah is located in a northern part of the square Registan and finishes the architectural complex turned on the South from three madrasahs. It represents a square construction with a total area of 75х75 meters in the plan. The architect who was obviously belonging to the Bukhara architectural school did not begin to copy blindly proportions of two other madrasahs located on the square, and solved the problem facing him compositionally; having extended wings of the main facade that gave to area space the closed look. Change of proportions of the main facade had also other investigation: being the central element of composition, Tillya-Kari's madrasah at the same time does not look same massive and does not rivet excess attention on itself, kind of being a background for two other more monumental madrasahs.
The main facade of madrasah is executed in the Bukhara style. It consists of the central portal and two-story frontal wings with arch niches coming to the area of 16 hudzhr (on eight from each party and on four in a tier). The symmetry of a facade is emphasized with angular towers-guldasta, which at the same time can perform functions of minarets. The main entrance portal is cut through by a deep pentahedral niche with three passes. The spacious four ayvann yard is enclosed on hudzhrama perimeter, located to two floors on the main facade and in one — along other parties. From West side of the yard the portal and dome building of the mosque Tillya-Kari is located. For maintaining symmetry of the yard on its central axes additional domestic portals are built. The mosque consists of three parts. In the center the crosswise room in the plan blocked by a double dome in which are located the trimmed with marble mikhrab and eleven step marble minbar. On both sides the central hall is adjoined by the galleries opened from the yard on columns.
External and domestic facades of madrasah are reverted with a brick and typesetting mosaic and a majolica with geometrical, vegetable and epigraphic ornaments. The room of the mosque is especially ornated. Its walls and